ENCYCLOPEDIA OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
(Bách khoa toàn thư về khoa học và công nghệ - trọn bộ 20 tập)
The McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology presents pertinent information in every field of modern science and technology. The 7100 articles are arranged alphabetically in the 19 text volumes. The range of article titles included in each volume is indicated on the spine and front cover (for example, volume 1 contains articles with titles starting with “Aar” up to “Ano”). Thus the reader may quickly locate an article by its title. The 20th volume contains the indexes and ancillary materials.
Broad survey articles are available for each of the disciplines covered; even readers with little prior knowledge of that discipline will find the basic concepts covered in these articles. Front the survey article, the reader may proceed to more specialized articles using the cross-referencing system. These cross references are set in small capital letters for emphasis and are inserted at the relevant points in the text. For example, in a survey article such as Digital computer, the reader is directed to numerous other articles such as Computer peripheral devices, Computer storage technology, Microprocessor, and Programming languages. The references may lead to subjects that have not occurred to the reader. The article Solvent has such diverse cross references as Coordination chemistry, Halogenated hydrocarbon, Industrial health and SAFETY, and Water pollution. The cross references not only lead to articles of greater specialization but also help illuminate the context of the article and the broader connections among topics. This edition contains more than 60,000 cross references. The pattern of proceeding from the general to the specific has been employed not only in the plan of the Encyclopedia but within the body of the articles. Each article begins with a definition of the subject, followed by sufficient background material to give a frame of reference and permit the reader to move into the detailed text of the article. Within the text are centered heads and two levels of sideheads that outline the article; they are intended to enhance understanding and can guide the user that prefers to read selectively the sections of a long article.
Alphabetization of article titles is by word, not by letter, with a comma providing a stop in occasional inverted article titles (so that subject matter can be grouped). Two examples of sequence are: Air Air-cushion vehicle Air mass - Air-traffic control - Aircraft fuel - Earth, age of Earth, heat flow of Earth crust Earth tides Earthquake Numerous illustrations, both line drawings and images, contribute to the utility, clarity, and interest of the text. Each illustration (as well as each table) is called out in boldface at its first mention in the text. This emphasis enables the reader to move from an illustration to the point in the text where the illustration is often discussed in detail.
To meet the needs of the Encyclopedia’s broad readership, measurements are given in dual systems of units: The u.s. Customary System is used throughout the text along with equivalent measurements in the International System of Units. In particular cases, such as references to measurements in some illustrations or tables, conversion factors may be given for simplicity. The contributor’s full name appears at the end of an article section or an entire article. Each author is identified in an alphabetical Contributors list in volume 20, which cites the university, laboratory, business, or other organization with which the author is affiliated and the titles of the articles written by that contributor.
Most of the articles contain bibliographies citing useful sources. The bibliographies are placed at the ends of articles or occasionally at the ends of major sections in long articles. For additional bibliographies, the reader should refer to related articles as indicated by cross references. Thus, the alphabetical arrangement of article titles, the text headings, the cross references, and the bibliographies permit the reader to research a particular topic by simply taking a volume from the shelf. However, the reader can also find information in the Encyclopedia by using the Analytical Index and the Topical Index in volume 20. The Analytical Index—over 500 pages in length—contains each important term, concept, and person mentioned throughout the 19 text volumes. It guides the reader to the volume numbers and page numbers concerned with a specific point. The reader wishing to consult everything in the Encyclopedia on a particular aspect of a subject will find that the Analytical Index is the best approach. A broader survey may be made through the Topical Index, which groups all article titles of the Encyclopedia under 90 general headings. For example, under “Atomic and molecular physics,” 90 articles are listed, and under “Biochemistry," 147. The Topical Index thus enables the reader quickly to identify all articles in the Encyclopedia in a particular subject area. The Study Guides in volume 20 provide highly structured outlines of major scientific disciplines and relate groups of Encyclopedia articles to each outline heading. By following a guide, the reader is led through pertinent Encyclopedia articles in a sequence that provides an overall grasp of the discipline.
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