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an analysis of the situation of children and women in kon tum province

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The purpose of this study is to provide a holistic picture, analysis and understanding of the situation of children and women in Kon Tum Province in the Central Highlands Region of Vietnam. The study aims to inform policy-makers and to help improve planning and the allocation of resources in the provincial Socio-Economic Development Plan (SEDP) And sector plans and budgets so that they are more child sensitive and evidence-based. The specific objectives of the study are threefold:

AN ANALYSIS OF THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN IN KON TUM PROVINCE


(Phân tích tình hình về trẻ em và phụ nữ tại tỉnh Kontum của Việt Nam)

 


The purpose of this study is to provide a holistic picture, analysis and understanding of the situation of children and women in Kon Tum Province in the Central Highlands Region of Vietnam. The study aims to inform policy-makers and to help improve planning and the allocation of resources in the provincial Socio-Economic Development Plan (SEDP) And sector plans and budgets so that they are more child sensitive and evidence-based. The specific objectives of the study are threefold:
• Firstly, toimproveunderstandingofthe current status of the fulfillment of children’s rights in relation to four clusters of child rights and areas of sector activity:
 (i) Maternal and child health and nutrition, water, sanitation and hygiene;
 (ii) Pre-school and general education;
 (iii) Child protection; And
 (iv) Children’s participation.
• Secondly, tostrengthenlocalcapacityto undertake and use the situation analysis as a means for monitoring the situation of


List of Table, Maps, Boxes and Figures
List of Abbreviations
ChaPter 1 introduCtion
1.1 Research objectives
1.2 Analytical framework and research methodology
1.3 Fieldwork locations and research participants
1.4 Structure of the report
ChaPter 2 develoPment Context
2.1 Geographical setting
2.1.1 Climate change, water resources and environmental vulnerability
2.2 Demographic characteristics and trends
2.2.1 Population size and urbanization
2.2.2 In-migration
2.2.3 Ethnic composition
2.2.4 Population age structure and life expectancy
2.2.5 Population growth and fertility
2.2.6 Sex ratio at birth
2.2.7 Household size
2.3 Comparison of key human development indicators
2.3.1 Infant and child mortality
2.3.2 Child nutrition
2.3.3 Water supply and sanitation
2.3.4 Education status of the adult population
2.4 Provincial economy, household incomes and employment
2.4.1 Structure of the provincial economy
2.4.2 Household incomes and consumption expenditures
2.4.3 Land use and recent developments in the agriculture economy
2.4.4 Labour force structure and participation
ChaPter 3 institutional Context and intra-ProvinCialdifferentiation
3.1 Institutional context for the fulfilment of child rights
3.1.1 Provincial revenue, provincial budget and social sector expenditures
3.1.2 Legislative framework for child care, protection and education
3.1.3 Province Action Programme for Children
3.1.4 Institutional roles and responsibilities for child rights
3.1.5 Cross-sector coordination, integration and synergy
3.2 Major Patterns of Intra-Provincial Differentiation
3.2.1 Demographic zonation
3.2.2 Poverty status and trends
3.3 Hard-to-reach and vulnerable groups of children and women
3.3.1 Mothers, infants and pre-school aged children
ChaPter 4 soCio-eConomiC and soCio-Cultural faCtorsunderlying vulnerability
4.1 Household incomes, food supply and nutrition
4.1.1 Patterns of livelihood diversification
4.1.2 Patterns of household cooperation and dependency
4.1.3 Forest foods and home garden production
4.1.4 Maternal and infant nutrition and feeding practices
4.2 Reproductive healthcare behaviour
4.2.1 Differential trends in childbirth
4.2.2 Early marriage and early pregnancy
4.2.3 Spiritual and ritual aspects of childbirth
4.2.4 Education, religious affiliation, family planning and birth control
ChaPter 5 Children’sPartiCIPation and soCial and Culturaltransformation
5.1 Children’s social networks and daily life activities
5.1.1 Children in remote rural areas
5.1.2 Children in more accessible rural areas
5.1.3 Children in urban areas
5.2 Problems and difficulties faced by children
5.3 Participation and protection of ethnic minority children
5.3.1 Transformation of social and cultural institutions
5.3.2 Village institutions
5.3.3 Customary laws
5.3.4 Interface between state and traditional village institutions
5.3.5 Attitudes towards children
5.4 Priorities and recommendations
ChaPter 6 healthCare, Water suPPly and sanitation
6.1 Policy and programmematic framework
6.1.1 Health sector revenues and expenditures
6.1.2 Expenditures under the National Target Programmes
6.2 Current situation
6.2.1 Maternal and early childhood health and nutrition
6.2.2 Patterns of incidence of maternal and infant mortality
6.2.3 HIV/ AIDS
6.2.4 Grassroots healthcare network
6.2.5 Rural water supply and sanitation
6.3 Priorities and recommendations
ChaPter 7 eduCation and develoPment
7.1 Policy and programmematic framework
7.1.1 Education sector budget allocations
7.1.2 Expenditures under the National Target Programme
7.1.3 Provincial policies
7.2 Current situation
7.2.1 Educational attainment in the general population
7.2.2 Gender and ethnic balance in general education
7.2.3 Early childhood education
7.2.4 Primary education
7.2.5 Learning outcomes at primary and secondary level
7.2.6 Education for children with disability
7.2.7 School health activities
7.2.8 Continuing education and employment opportunities
7.3 Priorities and recommendations
ChaPter 8 Child ProteCtion
8.1 Policy and programmatic framework
8.2 Provincial programmes
8.3 Current situation
8.3.1 Data on children in special circumstances
8.3.2 Community based child protection
8.3.3 Protection and care of orphans and children with disability
8.3.4 Policies to support social protection beneficiaries
8.3.5 Emergency assistance
8.3.6 Child injury prevention
8.3.7 Working children
8.3.8 Children in conflict with the law
8.3.9 Child abuse
8.4 Priorities and recommendations annex


List of References table
Table 1.1 The fieldwork locations
Table 2.1 Net migration rates in the Central Highland provinces, 1989,1999 & 2009
Table 2.2 Demographic and human development indicators: Nationwide, regional and provincialcomparison
Table 2.3 Household size and dependency ratio, 2009: Nationwide, regional and provincialcomparison
Table 2.4 Land use structure, 2011
Table 2.5 Agricultural production land assets per household and agricultural labourer, 2006
Table 2.6 Structure of the labour force, 2011
Table 3.1 Projected contributions to the Province Development Investment Budget, 2011-2015
Table 3.2 Policy Framework for Child Care, Protection and Education
Table 3.3 Institutional Responsibilities under the Province Action Programme for Children
Table 3.4 Institutional responsibilities related to children with disability
Table 3.5 Demographic zones in Kon Tum Province
Table 4.1 Reasons for not using health facilities for antenatal care and childbirth
Table 4.2 Proportion of young married people by age-group, sex and place of residence, 2009
Table 4.3 Women giving birth in 12 month period (4-2008 to 3-2009) With three or more childrenaccording to religious affiliation
Table 5.1 Po E Commune – Children’s problems and difficulties
Table 5.2 Tan Canh Commune – Children’s problems and difficulties
Table 5.3 Le Loi Ward – Children’s problems and difficulties
Table 5.4 Profile of social sciences research on indigenous ethnic minorities in the Central Highlands
Table 6.1 Health sector policies and programmes listed under the National Action Programme for Children in the period 2012-2020
Table 6.2 Health sector revenues and expenditures by category, 2006-2010
Table 6.3 Maternal and early childhood health indicators, 2001-2012
Table 6.4 Maternal and infant nutrition indicators: Provincial comparison, 2011
Table 6.5 Rural water supply and sanitation indicators, 2010,2011 & 2012
Table 6.6 District ranking of child under nutrition, water supply and sanitation indicators
Table 7.1 Education sector policies and programmes listed under the National Action Programmefor Children in the period 2012-2020
Table 7.2 Budgetary allocation in general education, 2011
Table 7.3 Net enrolment rates in general education in Kon Tum by place of residence and sex, 2009
Table 7.4 Nursery schooling – Key facts, school year 2012-2013
Table 7.5 Kindergarten education – Key facts, school year 2012-2013
Table 7.6 Primary education – Key facts, school year 2011-2012
Table 7.7 Drop-out rates at primary, lower and upper secondary school levels, school year 2011Table 7.8 Results of ethnic minority primary school student achievement in mathematics and Vietnamese language, school year 2006-2007 to 2011-2012
Table 7.9 Results of primary school student achievement in mathematics and Vietnamese language, school year 2011-2012
Table 7.10 Results of lower and upper secondary school student achievement in mathematics and Vietnamese language, school year 2011-2012
Table 7.11 Education for children with disability, 2012
Table 7.12 Children with disability attending school by administrative area, 2012
Table 8.1 Child protection policies and programmes listed under the National Action Programmefor Children in the period 2012-2020
Table 8.2 Data collection and reporting on children in special circumstances
Table 8.3 Number of children in special circumstances, 2010 & 2012
Table 8.5 Social protection beneficiaries and fund distribution by administrative area, 2012
Table 8.6 Social protection beneficiaries in Kon Tum City, 2011 & 2012
Table 8.7 Use of unconditional cash transfers in the post Ketsana relief programmeboxes


Box 1.1 Research Questions
Box 4.1 Household labour, food supply and cash supply in a poor household in Po E Commune
Box 4.2 Customary childbirth practices amongst the Brau and Romam
Box 4.3 Issues in reproductive healthcare behaviour in Tan Canh Commune
Box 5.1 Differences in opinion between parents and children about use of internet
Box 6.1 Activities of a Village Health Worker in Viklang II Village in Po E Commune
Box 6.2 Operations and maintenance of rural water supply schemes
Box 7.1 Further education and employment opportunities for lower secondary school leavers in Tan Canh Commune
Box 8.1 Child protection activities in Kon Tum City, 2012
Box 8.2 Box 8.2 Community based child protection club in Village 4, Tan Canh Commune
Box 8.3 Village Reconciliation Boards in Kon Tum
Box 8.4 Guardianship of children: Articles in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and Vietnam’s Civil CodemaPs
Map 2.1 Kon Tum Province
Map 2.2 Ethnic Composition of Kon Tum Province
Map 3.1 Household poverty rate by administrative area in 2012 (%)
Map 3.2 Number of poor households by administrative area in 2012
Map 3.3 Ranking of districts according to overall level of disadvantagefigures


Figure 2.1 Population characteristics of rural communes in Kon Tum, 2010
Figure 2.2 Population age structure, 1999 & 2009
Figure 2.3 Under 5 child malnutrition rates: Nationwide, regional and provincial comparison,2005-2011
Figure 2.4 Proportion of the population over 5 years old currently attending, attended in the past, ornever attended school by ethnicity, 1999 & 2009
Figure 2.5 Agriculture land area planted under annual and perennial crops, 2000 & 2011
Figure 2.6 Labour force participation rate in 2010: Nationwide, regional and provincial comparison
Figure 3.1 Province revenue sources, 2006-2011
Figure 3.2 Province social sector expenditures, 2006-2011
Figure 3.3 Commune ethnic minority population and poverty rate, 2010
Figure 3.4 Proportion of poor households that are Kinh households, 2012
Figure 3.5 Proportion of ethnic minority households that are poor, 2012
Figure 3.6 Number of poor ethnic minority households, 2012
Figure 3.7 Proportion of Kinh households that are poor, 2012
Figure 4.1 Maternal and Early Childhood Health and Nutrition – Causal Loop Diagram
Figure 4.2 Diversification of livelihoods for cash income and food supply amongst ethnic minorityhouseholds in the Central Highlands
Figure 4.3 Women aged 15-19 years old with 1 or more children, 2009
Figure 4.4 Rate of late birth registrations, 2012
Figure 4.5 Relationship between the proportion of women with three of more childrenand women’s level of educational attainment by administrative area, 2009
Figure 5.1 Children’s network diagrams
Figure 5.2 Word-cloud showing frequency of children’s daily life activities
Figure 5.3 Activity networks of ethnic minority children in Po E Commune
Figure 5.4 Activity networks of children in Tan Canh Commune
Figure 5.5 Activity networks of children in Le Loi Ward
Figure 6.1 Recurrent budget allocations to preventive and curative health services, 2006-2010 (actual) And 2010-2010 (projected)
Figure 6.2 Expenditures under the NTP on Epidemics, Social Disease & HIV/ AIDS, 2006-2010
Figure 6.3 Expenditures under the NTP on Population and Family Planning, 2006-2010
Figure 6.4 Expenditures under the NTP on Rural Water Supply and Sanitation, 2006-2010
Figure 6.5 Number of antenatal check-ups amongst pregnant women aged 15-49 years old in a 24month period up to 1/4/2012 in urban and rural areas of Kon Tum
Figure 6.6 Children under 5 years old who are underweight by administrative area, 2006 to 2012
Figure 6.7 Children under 5 that are underweight, 2012
Figure 6.8 Children under 5 with stunting, 2012
Figure 6.9 Proportion of rural people not using safe water, 2011
Figure 6.10 Number of rural people not using safe water, 2011
Figure 6.11 Rate of rural households with and without hygienic latrines by administrative area, 2011
Figure 6.12 Commune poverty rate and proportion of households without hygienic latrines, 2011
Figure 7.1 Allocation of expenditure to projects under the NTP on Education and Training in Kon Tum, 2006-2010
Figure 7.2 Persons over 5 years old with incomplete primary education as the highest level ofeducational attainment, 2009
Figure 7.3 Persons over 5 years old with completed primary education as the highest level ofeducation attainment, 2009
Figure 7.4 Highest level of educational attainment of persons over 5 years old in Kon Tum accordingto ethnicity, 2009
Figure 7.6 Number of Kinh and ethnic minority pupils in nursery and kindergarten school (2012-2013) And primary and secondary education, 2010-2011
Figure 7.6 Highest level of educational attainment of the population aged 5 years and overaccording to sex in Kon Tum, 2009
Figure 7.7 Proportion of girls, boys and ethnic minority pupils at primary, lower and upper secondaryschool levels in Kon Tum, 2010-2011
Figure 7.8 Proportion of girls and boys attending ethnic minority upper secondary boarding schoolsand going on to higher education, 2006 to 2012
Figure 7.9 Employment profile of workers in the 15 to 29 age brackets, 2009
Figure 7.10 Schematic view of strategy for improving ethnic minority education
Figure 8.1 Number of child injuries reported through the health system according to type of injuryand age-group, 2011 & 2012
Figure 8.2 Comparison of the proportion of child injuries that are work related injuries according toage group in Dien Bien, An Giang and Kon Tum
Figure 8.3 Prosecuted cases of children in conflict with the law, 2011 & 2012

 

List of abbreviations
CLTS Community Led Total Sanitation
CHC Commune Health Clinic
CWD Children with Disability
DOET Department of Education and Training
DOH Department of Health
DOLISA Department of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs
DPI Department of Planning and Investment
GDP Gross Domestic Product
GSO General Statistics Office
IEC Information, Education and Communication
IMR Infant Mortality Rate
KAP Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices
MOET Ministry of Education and Training
MOH Ministry of Health
MOLISA Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs
MMR Maternal Mortality Rate
NIN National Institute of Nutrition
NTP National Target Programme
ODA Official Development Assistance
PCERWASS Province Centre for Rural Water Supply and Sanitation
PPC Province Peoples Committee
RWSS Rural Water Supply and Sanitation
SEDP Socio Economic Development Plan
SRB Sex Ratio at Birth
UNFPA United Nations Population Fund
UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund
VHLSS Vietnam Housing and Living Standards Survey
VHW Village Health Worker
VND Vietnamese Dong

 

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