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textbook fedora 7 unleashed

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Fedora 7 Unleashed Ebook is organized into seven parts, covering installation and configuration,Fedora on the desktop, system administration, Fedora as a server, programming and housekeeping, and a reference section. A DVD containing the entire distribution is included so that you will have everything you need to get started. This book starts by covering the initial and essential tasks required to get Fedora installed and running on a target system. If you’re new to Linux, and more specifically, Fedora, first read the chapters in Part I, “Installation and Configuration.” You will get valuable information on

Textbook Fedora 7 Unleashed

 

(Linux Distribution – Publishing 2007)

 

Andrew Hudson and - Paul Hudson

 

Content

 

Introduction

 

Part I Installation and Configuration

 

1 Installing Fedora

 

2 Fedora Quick Start

 

3 Working with GNOME

 

4 Command Line Quickstart

 

Part II Desktop Fedora

 

5 On the Internet

 

6 Productivity Applications

 

7 Multimedia

 

8 Printing with Fedora

 

9 Games

 

Part III System Administration

 

10 Managing Users

 

11 Automating Tasks

 

12 System-Monitoring Tools

 

13 Backing Up

 

14 Networking

 

15 Remote Access with SSH

 

16 Xen

 

Part IV Fedora As a Server

 

17 Apache Web Server Management

 

18 Administering Database Services

 

19 File and Print

 

20 Remote File Serving with FTP

 

21 Handling Electronic Mail

 

22 Setting Up a Proxy Server

 

23 Managing DNS

 

24 LDAP

 

Part V Programming Linux

 

25 Using Perl

 

26 Working with Python

 

27 Writing PHP Scripts

 

28 C/ C++ Programming Tools for Fedora

 

29 Mono

 

Part VI Fedora Housekeeping

 

30 Securing Your Machines

 

31 Performance Tuning

 

32 Command Line Masterclass

 

33 Writing and Executing a Shell Script

 

34 Advanced Software Management

 

35 Managing the File System

 

36 Kernel and Module Management

 

Part VII Appendices

 

A The History of Red Hat and Fedora

 

B Installation Resources

 

C Fedora and Linux Internet Resources

 

Introduction

 

Changes from Previous Editions

 

Licensing

 

Who This Book Is For

 

What This Book Contains

 

Conventions Used in This Book

 

Part I Installation and Configuration

 

1 Installing Fedora

 

Before You Begin the Installation

 

Planning Partition Strategies

 

Choosing How to Install Fedora

 

Installing from CD or DVD

 

Installing Using a Network

 

Step-by-Step Installation

 

Starting the Install

 

Partitioning Your Hard Drive

 

Choosing, Configuring, and Installing the Boot Loader

 

Network Configuration

 

Setting the Time Zone

 

Creating a Root Password and User Accounts

 

Software Selection and Installation

 

Finishing the Install

 

Firstboot Configuration

 

Logging In and Shutting Down

 

Reference

 

2 Fedora Quick Start

 

The Fedora Desktop

 

Getting Around Fedora

 

The Menu Options

 

Window Selector

 

The Computer Icon

 

The Home Icon

 

Accessing the Command Line

 

Available Applications

 

Office Suite

 

Internet Workstation

 

Multimedia

 

Games

 

Keeping Your Software Up To Date

 

Configuring Wireless Networks

 

3 Working with GNOME

 

The GNOME Desktop Environment

 

AIGLX—Eye Candy for the Masses

 

Basic X Concepts

 

Using X

 

Elements of the xorg. conf File

 

Configuring X

 

Starting X

 

Using a Display Manager

 

Starting X from the Console by Using startx

 

Using Fedora’s switchdesk Client

 

KDE—The Other Environment

 

XFce

 

Reference

 

4 Command Line Quickstart

 

Understanding the Command Line

 

Navigating Through the File System

 

Managing Files with the Shell

 

Working with Compressed Files

 

Use Essential Commands from the / bin and / sbin Directories

 

Use and Edit Files in the / etc Directory

 

Protect the Contents of User Directories—/ home

 

Use the Contents of the / proc Directory to Interactwith the Kernel

 

Work with Shared Data in the / usr Directory

 

Temporary File Storage in the / tmp Directory

 

Access Variable Data Files in the / var Directory

 

Logging In to and Working with Linux

 

Text-based Console Login

 

Logging Out

 

Logging In and Out from a Remote Computer

 

Using Environment Variables

 

Using the Text Editors

 

Working with

 

Working with emacs

 

Working with Permissions

 

Assigning Permissions

 

Directory Permissions

 

Understanding Set User ID and Set Group ID Permissions

 

Working as Root

 

Creating Users

 

Deleting Users

 

Shutting Down the System

 

Rebooting the System

 

Reading Documentation

 

Using Man Pages

 

Reference

 

Part II Desktop Fedora

 

5 On the Internet

 

Browsing the Internet

 

Mozilla Firefox

 

Konqueror

 

Choosing an Email Client

 

Evolution

 

Mozilla Thunderbird

 

KMail

 

Other Mail Clients

 

RSS Readers

 

Firefox

 

Liferea

 

Instant Messaging with Pidgin

 

Internet Relay Chat

 

Usenet Network Newsgroups

 

The Pan News Client Newsreader

 

Videoconferencing with Ekiga

 

Reference

 

6 Productivity Applications

 

What Is in OpenOffice. org?

 

Working with OpenOffice. org Writer

 

Working with OpenOffice. org Calc

 

Contents viiOffice Suites for Fedora

 

Working with Gnome Office

 

Working with KOffice

 

Productivity Applications Written for Microsoft Windows

 

Reference

 

7 Multimedia

 

Listening to Music

 

Streaming Audio

 

Graphics Manipulation

 

The GNU Image Manipulation Program

 

Using Scanners in Fedora

 

Working with Graphics Formats

 

Capturing Screen Images

 

Using Digital Cameras with Fedora

 

Handheld Digital Cameras

 

Using F-Spot

 

Burning CDs and DVDs in Fedora

 

Creating CDs and DVDs with Fedora’s Graphical Clients

 

Creating CDs from the Command Line

 

Creating DVDs from the Command Line

 

Sound and Music

 

Sound Cards

 

Adjusting Volume

 

Sound Formats

 

Viewing Video

 

TV and Video Hardware

 

Video Formats

 

Viewing Video in Linux

 

Personal Video Recorders

 

DVD and Video Players

 

Reference

 

8 Printing with Fedora

 

Overview of Fedora Printing

 

Configuring and Managing Print Services

 

GUI-Based Printer Configuration Quickstart

 

Managing Printing Services

 

Creating and Configuring Local Printers

 

Creating the Print Queue

 

Editing Printer Settings

 

Reference

 

Fedora 7 Unleashed viii9 Games

 

Linux Gaming

 

Installing Proprietary Video Drivers

 

Installing Popular Games in Fedora

 

DOOM

 

Unreal Tournament

 

Quake

 

Wolfenstein: Enemy Territory

 

Battle for Wesnoth

 

KDEedu

 

Playing Windows Games with Cedega

 

Reference

 

Part III System Administration

 

10 Managing Users

 

User Accounts

 

Adding New Users

 

User IDs and Group IDs

 

Managing Groups

 

Group Management Tools

 

Managing Users

 

User Management Tools

 

Monitoring User Activity on the System

 

Managing Permissions

 

Assigning Permissions

 

Directory Permissions

 

Understanding Set User ID and Set Group ID Permissions

 

Managing Passwords

 

The Password File

 

Shadow Passwords

 

Managing Password Security for Users

 

Changing Passwords in a Batch

 

Granting System Administrator Privileges to Regular Users

 

Temporarily Changing User Identity with the su Command

 

Granting Root Privileges on Occasion—The sudo Command

 

Disk Quotas

 

Implementing Quotas

 

Manually Configuring Quotas

 

Reference

 

Automating Tasks

 

Running Services at Bootup

 

Beginning the Boot Loading Process

 

Loading the Linux Kernel

 

System Services and Runlevels

 

Runlevel Definitions

 

Booting into the Default Runlevel

 

Booting to a Nondefault Runlevel with GRUB

 

Understanding init Scripts and the Final Stage of Initialization

 

Controlling Services at Boot with Administrative Tools

 

Running Services Through xinetd

 

Changing Runlevels

 

Troubleshooting Runlevel Problems

 

Starting and Stopping Services Manually

 

Scheduling Tasks

 

Using at and batch to Schedule Tasks for Later

 

Using cron to Run Jobs Repeatedly

 

Basic Shell Control

 

The Shell Command Line

 

Shell Pattern-Matching Support

 

Piping Data

 

Background Processing

 

Reference

 

12 System-Monitoring Tools

 

Console-Based Monitoring

 

Using the kill Command to Control Processes

 

Using Priority Scheduling and Control

 

Displaying Free and Used Memory with free

 

Disk Quotas

 

Graphical Process and System Management Tools

 

KDE Process- and System-Monitoring Tools

 

Reference

 

13 Backing Up

 

Choosing a Backup Strategy

 

Why Data Loss Occurs

 

Assessing Your Backup Needs and Resources

 

Evaluating Backup Strategies

 

Making the Choice

 

Removable Storage Media

 

Network Storage

 

Tape Drive Backup

 

Using Backup Softwaretar: The Most Basic Backup Tool

 

The GNOME File Roller

 

The KDE Archiving Tools (KDE ark and kdat)

 

Using the Amanda Backup Application

 

Alternative Backup Software

 

Copying Files

 

Copying Files Using tar

 

Compressing, Encrypting, and Sending tar Streams

 

Copying Files Using cp

 

Using mc to Copy Files

 

System Rescue

 

The Fedora Rescue Disc

 

Backing Up and Restoring the Master Boot Record

 

Manually Restoring the Partition Table

 

Booting the System from the Rescue Disc

 

Booting the System from a Generic Boot Floppy Disk

 

Using a GRUB Boot Floppy Disk

 

Using the Recovery Facility from the Installation Disc

 

Reference

 

14 Networking

 

Using Network Configuration Tools

 

Using Graphical Configuration Tools

 

Command-Line Network Interface Configuration

 

Network Configuration Files

 

Laying the Foundation: The localhost Interface

 

Checking for the Availability of the Loopback Interface

 

Configuring the Loopback Interface Manually

 

Networking with TCP/ IP

 

Advanced Wireless Networking

 

Support for Wireless Networking in Fedora

 

TCP/ IP Addressing

 

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

 

How DHCP Works

 

DHCP Software Installation

 

Using DHCP to Configure Network Hosts

 

Contents xiOther Uses for DHCP

 

Using IP Masquerading in Fedora

 

Ports

 

Beyond the Network and Onto the Internet

 

Common Configuration Information

 

Configuring DSL Access

 

Understanding Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet

 

Configuring a PPPoE Connection Manually

 

Configuring Dial-Up Internet Access

 

Configuring a Dial-Up Connection Manually

 

Using the Fedora Internet Configuration Wizard

 

Troubleshooting Connection Problems

 

Reference

 

General

 

DHCP

 

Wireless

 

Books

 

15 Remote Access with SSH

 

Setting Up a Telnet Server

 

Setting Up an SSH Server

 

The SSH Tools

 

Using scp to Copy Individual Files Between Machines

 

Using sftp to Copy Many Files Between Machines

 

Using ssh-keygen to Enable Key-Based Logins

 

Remote X

 

XDMCP

 

VNC

 

References

 

16 Xen

 

Why Virtualization Is a Smart Idea

 

Virtualization Versus Paravirtualization

 

How Xen Works

 

Installing Xen

 

Setting Up Guest Operating Systems

 

Runtime Configuration

 

Reference

 

Apache Web Server Management

 

About the Apache Web Server

 

Installing the Apache Server

 

Installing Through Pirut

 

Installing from the RPM

 

Building the Source Yourself

 

Starting and Stopping Apache

 

Starting the Apache Server Manually

 

Using / etc/ rc. d/ init. d/ httpd

 

Controlling Apache with Fedora’s service Command

 

Controlling Apache with Fedora’s chkconfig Command

 

Graphic Interface Configuration of Apache

 

Configuring Virtual Host Properties

 

Configuring the Server

 

Configuring Apache for Peak Performance

 

Runtime Server Configuration Settings

 

Runtime Configuration Directives

 

Editing httpd. conf

 

Apache Multiprocessing Modules

 

Using. htaccess Configuration Files

 

File System Authentication and Access Control

 

Restricting Access with allow and deny

 

Authentication

 

Final Words on Access Control

 

Apache Modulesmod_accessmod_aliasmod_asismod_authmod_auth_anonmod_auth_dbmmod

_auth_digestmod_autoindexmod_cgimod_dir and mod_envmod_expiresmod_headers

 

Contents xiiimod_includemod_info and mod_log_configmod_mime and mod_mime_magicmod_

negotiationmod_proxymod_rewritemod_setenvifmod_spelingmod_statusmod_sslmod_unique_idmod_

userdirmod_vhost_alias

 

Virtual Hosting

 

Address-Based Virtual Hosts

 

Name-Based Virtual Hosts

 

Logging

 

Reference

 

18 Administering Database Services

 

A Brief Review of Database Basics

 

How Relational Databases Work

 

Understanding SQL Basics

 

Choosing a Database: MySQL Versus PostgreSQL

 

Speed

 

Data Locking

 

ACID Compliance in Transaction Processing to Protect

 

Data Integrity

 

SQL Subqueries

 

Procedural Languages and Triggers

 

Configuring MySQL

 

Setting a Password for the MySQL Root User

 

Creating a Database in MySQL

 

Granting and Revoking Privileges in MySQL

 

Configuring PostgreSQL

 

Initializing the Data Directory in PostgreSQL

 

Creating a Database in PostgreSQL

 

Creating Database Users in PostgreSQL

 

Deleting Database Users in PostgreSQL

 

Granting and Revoking Privileges in PostgreSQL

 

Fedora 7 Unleashed xivDatabase Clients

 

SSH Access to a Database

 

Local GUI Client Access to a Database

 

Web Access to a Database

 

The MySQL Command-Line Client

 

The PostgreSQL Command-Line Client

 

Graphical Clients

 

Reference

 

19 File and Print

 

Using the Network File System

 

NFS Server Configuration

 

NFS Client Configuration

 

Putting Samba to Work

 

Configuring Samba with system-config-samba

 

Configuring Samba with SWAT

 

Manually Configuring Samba with / etc/ samba/ smb. conf

 

Testing Samba with the testparm Command

 

Starting the smbd Daemon

 

Mounting Samba Shares

 

Network and Remote Printing with Fedora

 

Enabling Network Printing on a LAN

 

Session Message Block Printing

 

Network-Attached Printer Configuration and Printing

 

Using the Common Unix Printing System GUI

 

Console Print Control

 

Using Basic Print Commands

 

Managing Print Jobs

 

Avoiding Printer Support Problems

 

All-in-One (Print/ Fax/ Scan) Devices

 

Using USB and Legacy Printers

 

Reference

 

20 Remote File Serving with FTP

 

Choosing an FTP Server

 

Choosing an Authenticated or Anonymous Server

 

Fedora FTP Server Packages

 

Other FTP Servers

 

Installing FTP Software

 

The FTP User

 

Contents xvxinetd Configuration for wu-ftpd

 

Configuring xinetd for the wu-ftp Server

 

Starting the Very Secure FTP Server (vsftpd) Package

 

Configuring the Very Secure FTP Server

 

Controlling Anonymous Access

 

Other vsftpd Server Configuration Files

 

Configuring the wu-ftpd Server

 

Using Commands in the ftpaccess File to Configure wu-ftpd

 

Configure Access Control

 

Configure User Information

 

Configure System Logging

 

Configure Permission Control

 

Configure Commands Directed Toward the cdpath

 

Structure of the shutdown File

 

Configuring FTP Server File-Conversion Actions

 

Strip Prefix

 

Strip Postfix

 

Add-On Prefix

 

Add-On Postfix

 

External Command

 

An Example of Conversions in Action

 

Using ftphosts to Allow or Deny FTP Server Connection

 

Using Commands for Server Administration

 

Display Information About Connected Users

 

Count the Number of Connections

 

Use / usr/ sbin/ ftpshut to Schedule FTP Server Downtime

 

Use / var/ log/ xferlog to View a Log of Server Transactions

 

Reference

 

21 Handling Electronic Mail

 

How Email Is Sent and Received

 

The Mail Transport Agent

 

Choosing an MTA

 

The Mail Delivery Agent

 

The Mail User Agent

 

Basic Sendmail Configuration and Operation

 

Configuring Masquerading

 

Using Smart Hosts

 

Setting Message Delivery Intervals

 

Building the sendmail. cf File

 

Fedora 7 Unleashed xviMail Relaying

 

Forwarding Email with Aliases

 

Rejecting Email from Specified Sites

 

Introducing Postfix

 

Making the Switch

 

Using Fetchmail to Retrieve Mail

 

Installing Fetchmail

 

Configuring Fetchmail

 

Choosing a Mail Delivery Agent

 

Procmail

 

Spamassassin

 

Squirrelmail

 

Virus Scanners

 

Special Mail Delivery Agents

 

Mail Daemons

 

Alternatives to Microsoft Exchange Server

 

Microsoft Exchange Server/ Outlook Client

 

CommuniGate Pro

 

Oracle Collaboration Suite

 

Open Xchange

 

Reference

 

Web Resources

 

Books

 

What Is a Proxy Server?

 

Installing Squid

 

Configuring Clients

 

Access Control Lists

 

Specifying Client IP Addresses

 

Sample Configurations

 

Reference

 

23 Managing DNS

 

Configuring DNS for Clients

 

The / etc/ host. conf File

 

The / etc/ nsswitch. conf File

 

The / etc/ hosts File

 

The / etc/ resolv. conf File

 

Understanding the Changes Made by DHCP

 

Contents xviiEssential DNS Concepts

 

How Nameservers Store DNS Structure Information

 

How DNS Provides Name Service Information to Users

 

Name Resolution in Practice

 

Using DNS Toolsdighostnslookupwhois

 

Configuring a Local Caching Nameserver

 

Your Own Domain Name and Third-Party DNS

 

Providing DNS for a Real Domain with BINDrndc. confnamed. conf

 

Logging

 

Resolver Configuration

 

Running the named Nameserver Daemon

 

Providing DNS for a Real Domain

 

Forward Zone

 

Reverse Zone

 

Registering the Domain

 

Troubleshooting DNS

 

Delegation Problems

 

Reverse Lookup Problems

 

Maintaining Accurate Serial Numbers

 

Troubleshooting Problems in Zone Files

 

Tools for Troubleshooting

 

Using Fedora’s BIND Configuration Tool

 

Managing DNS Security

 

Unix Security Considerations

 

DNS Security Considerations

 

Using DNS Security Extensions

 

Using Split DNS

 

Reference

 

24 LDAP

 

Configuring the Server

 

Populating Your Directory

 

Configuring Clients

 

Evolution

 

Thunderbird

 

Administration

 

Reference

 

Fedora 7 Unleashed xviiiPart V Programming Linux

 

25 Using Perl

 

Using Perl with Linux

 

Perl Versions

 

A Simple Perl Program

 

Perl Variables and Data Structures

 

Perl Variable Types

 

Special Variables

 

Operators

 

Comparison Operators

 

Compound Operators

 

Arithmetic Operators

 

Other Operators

 

Special String Constants

 

Conditional Statementsif/ elseunless

 

Loopingforforeachwhileuntillast and nextdo

 

Regular Expressions

 

Access to the Shell

 

Modules and CPAN

 

Reference

 

Books

 

26 Working with Python

 

Python on Linux

 

Getting Interactive

 

The Basics of Python

 

Numbers

 

More on Strings

 

Lists

 

Dictionaries

 

Conditionals and Looping

 

Functions

 

Contents xixObject Orientation

 

Class and Object Variables

 

Constructors and Destructors

 

Class Inheritance

 

Multiple Inheritance

 

The Standard Library and the Vaults of Parnassus

 

Reference

 

27 Writing PHP Scripts

 

Introduction to PHP

 

Entering and Exiting PHP Mode

 

Variables

 

Arrays

 

Constants

 

Comments

 

Escape Sequences

 

Variable Substitution

 

Operators

 

Conditional Statements

 

Special Operators

 

Switching

 

Loops

 

Including Other Files

 

Basic Functions

 

Strings

 

Arrays

 

Files

 

Miscellaneous

 

Handling HTML Forms

 

Reference

 

28 C/ C++ Programming Tools for Fedora

 

Programming in C/ C++ with Linux

 

Using the C Programming Project Management Tools

 

Provided with Fedora Linux

 

Building Programs with make

 

Using the autoconf Utility to Configure Code

 

Managing Software Projects with Subversion

 

Debugging Tools

 

Using the GNU C Compiler

 

Fedora 7 Unleashed xxGraphical Development Tools

 

Using the KDevelop Client

 

The Glade Client for Developing in GNOME

 

Reference

 

29 Mono

 

Why Use Mono?

 

Mono on the Command Line

 

The Structure of a C# Program

 

Printing Out the Parameters

 

Creating Your Own Variables

 

Adding Some Error Checking

 

Building on Mono’s libraries

 

Searching with Beagle

 

Creating a GUI with Gtk#

 

Reference

 

Part VI Fedora Housekeeping

 

30 Securing Your Machines

 

Understanding Computer Attacks

 

Assessing Your Vulnerability

 

Protecting Your Machine

 

Securing a Wireless Network

 

Passwords and Physical Security

 

Configuring and Using Tripwire

 

Devices

 

Viruses

 

Configuring Your Firewall

 

Forming a Disaster Recovery Plan

 

Keeping Up-to-Date on Linux Security Issues

 

Understanding SELinux

 

Reference

 

31 Performance Tuning

 

Hard Disk

 

Using the BIOS and Kernel to Tune the Disk Drives

 

The hdparm Command

 

File System Tuning

 

The tune2fs Command

 

The e2fsck Command

 

Contents xxiThe badblocks Command

 

Disabling File Access Time

 

Kernel

 

Apache

 

MySQL

 

Measuring Key Buffer Usage

 

Using the Query Cache

 

Miscellaneous Tweaks

 

Query Optimization

 

Reference

 

32 Command Line Masterclass

 

Why Use the Shell?

 

Basic Commands

 

Printing the Contents of a File with cat

 

Changing Directories with cd

 

Changing File Access Permissions with chmod

 

Copying Files with cp

 

Printing Disk Usage with du

 

Finding Files by Searching with find

 

Searches for a String in Input with grep

 

Paging Through Output with less

 

Creating Links Between Files with ln

 

Finding Files from an Index with locate

 

Listing Files in the Current Directory with ls

 

Reading Manual Pages with man

 

Making Directories with mkdir

 

Moving Files with mv

 

Listing Processes with ps

 

Deleting Files and Directories with rm

 

Printing the Last Lines of a File with tail

 

Printing Resource Usage with top

 

Printing the Location of a Command with which

 

Combining Commands

 

Multiple Terminals

 

Date and Time

 

Using the date Command

 

Using the hwclock Command

 

Capturing Screen Images

 

Reference

 

Writing and Executing a Shell Script

 

Running a Shell Program

 

Interpreting Shell Scripts Through Specific Shells

 

Using Variables in Shell Scripts

 

Assigning a Value to a Variable

 

Accessing Variable Values

 

Positional Parameters

 

Using a Simple Script to Automate Tasks

 

Built-in Variables

 

Special Characters

 

Use Double Quotes to Resolve Variables in Stringswith Embedded Spaces

 

Using Single Quotes to Maintain Unexpanded Variables

 

Using the Backslash as an Escape Character

 

Using the Backtick to Replace a String with Output

 

Comparison of Expressions in pdksh and bash

 

String Comparison

 

Number Comparison

 

File Operators

 

Logical Operators

 

Special Statements: for, while, and Others

 

The for Statement

 

The while Statement

 

The until Statement

 

The shift Statement

 

The if Statement

 

The case Statement

 

The break and exit Statements

 

Using Functions in Shell Scripts

 

Reference

 

Advanced Software Management

 

Using RPM for Software Managementrpm at the Command Line

 

Two Handy Options

 

Using rpm on the Command Line

 

Extracting a Single File from an RPM File

 

Getting Started with yum

 

Running yum Noninteractively

 

Using yum to Remove Packages

 

Maintaining yum

 

Contents xxiiiUsing yum to Manage Package Inventory

 

Configuring yum

 

Using pirut for Software Management

 

Using Yum Extender

 

Creating a Local yum Repository

 

Reference

 

35 Managing the File System

 

The Fedora File System Basics

 

Physical Structure of the File System on the Disk

 

File System Partitions

 

Network and Disk File Systems

 

Viewing Your System’s File Systems

 

Working with the ext3 File System

 

Understanding the ext3 File System Structure

 

Journaling Options in ext

 

Verifying File Integrity in ext3 File Systems with the fsck Utility

 

Other File Systems Available to Fedora

 

The Reiser File System (reiserfs)

 

JFS and XFS File Systems

 

DOS File Systems

 

CD-ROM File Systems

 

Creating a File System

 

The Disk as a Storage Device

 

Creating the Partition Table

 

Creating the File System on the Partitioned Disk

 

Creating a DOS File System with mkdosfs

 

Mounting File Systems

 

The mount Command

 

The umount Command

 

Mounting Automatically with / etc/ fstab

 

Relocating a File System

 

Installing the New Drive

 

Creating the Partition Table and Formatting the Disk

 

Mounting the New Partition and Populating It withthe Relocated Files

 

Logical Volume Management

 

File System Manipulation

 

Creating a File System for Testing

 

Mounting a Partition as Read-Only on a Running System

 

Examine an initrd Image File

 

Reference

 

Fedora 7 Unleashed xxiv36 Kernel and Module Management

 

The Linux Kernel

 

The Linux Source Tree

 

Types of Kernels

 

Managing Modules

 

When to Recompile

 

Kernel Versions

 

Obtaining the Kernel Sources

 

Patching the Kernel

 

Compiling the Kernel

 

Using xconfig to Configure the Kernel

 

Creating an Initial RAM Disk Image

 

When Something Goes Wrong

 

Errors During Compile

 

Runtime Errors, Boot Loader Problems, and Kernel Oops

 

Reference

 

Part VII Appendices

 

A The History of Red Hat and Fedora

 

What Is Fedora?

 

Fedora for Business

 

Fedora in Your Home

 

64-Bit Fedora

 

Fedora on the PPC Platform

 

Fedora on Multi-Core Machines

 

B Installation Resources

 

Planning Your Fedora Deployment

 

Business Considerations

 

System Considerations

 

User Considerations

 

A Predeployment Planning Checklist

 

Planning the Installation

 

Hardware Requirements

 

Meeting the Minimum Fedora Hardware Requirements

 

Using Legacy Hardware

 

Planning for Hard Drive Storage for Your Fedora Installation

 

Checking Hardware Compatibility

 

Preparing for Potential Hardware Problems

 

Preparing and Using a Hardware Inventory

 

Contents xxvPreparing for the Install Process

 

Partitioning Before and During Installation

 

Choosing a Partitioning Scheme

 

Hosting Parts of the Linux File System on Separate Partitions

 

Using Fedora’s kickstart Installation Method

 

Reference

 

C Fedora and Linux Internet Resources

 

Websites and Search Engines

 

Web Search Tips

 

Google Is Your Friend

 

Fedora Package Listings

 

Certification

 

Commercial Support

 

Documentation

 

Linux Guides

 

The Fedora Project

 

Red Hat Linux

 

Mini-CD Linux Distributions

 

Floppy-Based Linux Distributions

 

Various Intel-Based Linux Distributions

 

PowerPC-Based Linux Distributions

 

Linux on Laptops and PDAs

 

Usenet Newsgroups

 

Mailing Lists

 

Fedora Project Mailing Lists

 

Red Hat Mailing Lists

 

Internet Relay Chat

 

Index 859

 

 

 

It’s good that I am able to say thank you to a number of people. Writing a book is a collaborative effort and requires a lot of coordination, especially as Paul and I are located in the UK whilst our editorial team at Pearson is located across the pond in the U.S. But right now I’d like to thank Damon Jordan, our acquisitions editor, for his persistence and careful management of the many chapters floating to and fro across the Internet.

 

Vanessa Evans is one of the most organized individuals I know, and her ability to answer nearly any query relating to the publishing of the book is unbelievable. She has been extremely patient with a Brit trying to navigate through the web that is the U.S. tax system and I thank her for all her help and assistance.

 

A little closer to home and I’d like to thank the Computer Services department at Future Publishing, of which I am a part. They gave me access to many different hardware config- urations, allowing me to thoroughly test a lot of the material in this book. Particular mentions go to Avi Abadi, Jon Moore, and Derek Smith, all of whom have helped me along the way.

 

My own family has been incredibly supportive of my writing this book. Juggling a book and being a full-time father and husband is no mean feat, but thankfully I have a loving wife in Bernice who has allowed me to shut myself away for days at a time to get this book completed. Our young son John is a constant source of amazement and joy and he keeps me firmly rooted to the ground.

 

Finally I want to thank God for the many blessings He has given me. My life would not be anything without Him, and I am eternally grateful for His grace.

 

Paul Hudson

 

Although only two names appear on the cover of this book, it is the culmination of many years of writing, refining, testing, rewriting, exploration, and passion from many people. I feel lucky to be part of the team and want to thank the others for their enthusiasm and humor—it makes a huge difference to know that everyone who works on this book enjoys the topic!I’m grateful to the entire team at Pearson for their help and feedback, particularly Damon,Dallas, and Mike—it’s great to work with people who really care about free software and want to help others along that same journey. Of course, Andrew and I both owe a huge debt to our good friend Hoyt Duff, who we hope is somewhere sunny buffing up a classic car!

 

My family’s contribution to this work has been immense. Andrew was brave in accepting the job of co-writing, but it turns out that we work in tandem very well—he has done a marvelous job, and we are both very proud of this end result. My wife, Ildiko, managed to put up with even more months of me doing no housework, although I think that the minute I am finished with this it is back to the grindstone for me (why do you think these acknowledgements are so long?). My parents have been immensely supportive throughout, and I love them dearly.

 

Finally, none of this work would have been possible without the grace of God. Andrew and I have been blessed to be able to write this book, and I pray it blesses you even more. We Want to Hear from You!

 

As the reader of this book, you are our most important critic and commentator. We value your opinion and want to know what we’re doing right, what we could do better, what areas you’d like to see us publish in, and any other words of wisdom you’re willing to pass our way. You can email or write me directly to let me know what you did or didn’t like about this book—as well as what we can do to make our books stronger.

 

Please note that I cannot help you with technical problems related to the topic of this book, and that due to the high volume of mail I receive, I might not be able to reply to every message. When you write, please be sure to include this book’s title and author as well as your name and phone or email address. I will carefully review your comments and share them with the author and editors who worked on the book.

 

 

Welcome to Fedora 7 Unleashed!

 

This book covers the free Linux distribution named Fedora and includes a fully functional and complete operating system produced by the Fedora Project, sponsored by Red Hat.

 

Fedora is directly descended from one of the most popular Linux distributions ever: Red Hat Linux. Those of you who know nothing about Linux might have heard of Red Hat; it is enough to know that it is the largest Linux vendor in North America. Fedora benefits directly from many Red Hat engineers as well as the wider contributions from free soft- ware developers across the world.

 

If you are new to Linux, you have made a great decision by choosing this book. Sams Publishing’s Unleashed books offer an in-depth look at their subjects, taking in both begin- ner and advanced users and moving them to a new level in knowledge and expertise.

 

Fedora is a fast-changing distribution that can be updated at least twice a year. We have tracked the development of Fedora from very early on to make sure that the information contained in this book mirrors closely the development of the distribution. A full copy of Fedora is included on the DVD, making it possible for you to install Linux in less than an hour!

 

This book provides all the information that you need to get up and running with Fedora. It even tells you how to keep Fedora running in top shape, as well as adapt Fedora to changes in your needs and requirements. Fedora can be used at home, in the workplace, or, with permission, at your school and college. In fact, you might want to poke around your school’s computer rooms: You will probably find that someone has already beaten you to the punch—Linux is commonly found in academic institutions. Feel free to make as many copies of the software as you want. No copyright lawyers are going to pound on your door because Fedora is freely distributable all over the world.

 

After this brief introduction you will get straight into the distribution, learning how to install and configure Fedora and find your way around the Gnome graphical interface, as well as learning about the command line. We will also take you through installing soft- ware, managing users, and other common administrative tasks. For the more technically minded, we cover some starting steps in programming across several languages—why not pick one and give it a go? Through the book you will also find information on multi- media applications, digital graphics, and even gaming for after hours when you are finished tinkering. After you make it through the book, you will be well equipped with the knowledge needed to use Linux successfully. We do assume that you are at least famil- iar with an operating system already (even if it is not with Linux), and have some basic computer knowledge. We round off the book by giving you some reference points for you to access via the web, and also explore the origins of Fedora and Linux.Changes from Previous Editions

 

Readers who may already own previous editions of Fedora Unleashed may wonder what work has gone into this edition. Well, we’ve overhauled the entire structure of the book, making it far faster for you to get stuck into Fedora.

 

We have also substantially re-written several chapters and introduced new ones, such as “Command Line Quickstart” and others. This book also looks at the three main ways in which you can obtain Fedora: by using the DVD, Live CD, and KDE Live CD media. There are many changes to this book and it’s taken a long time to come to fruition.

 

This book is for anyone searching for guidance on using Fedora, and primarily focuses on Intel-based PC platforms. Although the contents are aimed at intermediate to advanced users, even new users with a bit of computer savvy will benefit from the advice, tips, tricks, traps, and techniques presented in each chapter. Pointers to more detailed or related information are also provided at the end of each chapter.

 

Fedora’s installer program, named Anaconda, makes the job of installing Linux as easy as possible. However, if you are new to Linux, you might need to learn some new computer skills, such as how to research your computer’s hardware, how to partition a hard drive, and occasionally how to use a command line. This book will help you learn these skills and show you how to learn more about your computer, Linux, and the software included with Fedora. System administrators with experience using other operating systems will be able to use the information presented in this book to install, set up, and run common Linux software services, such as the Network File System (NFS), a File Transfer Protocol (FTP) server, and a web server (using Apache, among other web servers).

 

What This Book Contains

 

Fedora 7 Unleashed is organized into seven parts, covering installation and configuration,Fedora on the desktop, system administration, Fedora as a server, programming and housekeeping, and a reference section. A DVD containing the entire distribution is included so that you will have everything you need to get started. This book starts by covering the initial and essential tasks required to get Fedora installed and running on a target system.

 

If you’re new to Linux, and more specifically, Fedora, first read the chapters in Part I, “Installation and Configuration.” You will get valuable information on

 

. Detailed steps that take you by the hand through various types of installations

 

. Initial steps needed by new users transitioning from other computing environments

 

. Configuration and use of Gnome and X, the graphical interface for Linux

 

Part II, “Desktop Fedora,” is aimed at users that want to get productive with Fedora and covers the following:

 

. Discovering the many productivity applications that come with Fedora

 

. Surfing the Internet and working with email and newsgroups

 

. Using Fedora to listen to music and watch video

 

. Using Fedora to download and manipulate images from digital cameras

 

. Setting up local printers for Fedora

 

. A look at the current state of gaming for Linux

 

Introduction 3Moving beyond the productivity and desktop areas of Fedora,

 

Part III, “System Administration,” covers

 

. Managing users and groups

 

. Automating tasks and using shell scripts

 

. Monitoring system resources and availability

 

. Backup strategies and software

 

. Network connectivity, including sharing folders and securing the network

 

. Internet connectivity via dial-up and broadband connections

 

Part IV, “Fedora As a Server,” looks at the opportunities provided by every Fedora system by covering

 

. Building and deploying web servers

 

. Database creation, management, and manipulation

 

. File and print servers

 

. Using FTP for serving files across the Internet and local networks

 

. Building and deploying email servers with Postfix as well as managing mailing lists

 

. Creating remote access gateways and services

 

. Configuring DNS for your network

 

. Using LDAP for storing information on users and security

 

. Configuring a local news server

 

Part V, “Programming Linux,” provides a great introduction into ways in which you can extend Fedora’s capabilities even further, using the development tools supplied with it. This part covers

 

. Programming in Perl, using variables and scripting

 

. An introduction to the Python language

 

. Writing PHP scripts and linking them to databases

 

. An introduction to the mono programming language

 

. C and C++ programming tools available with Fedora, and how to use the GNU C Compiler (gcc)

 

Part VI, “Fedora Housekeeping,” looks at some of the more advanced skills you need to keep your system running in perfect condition, including

 

. Securing your machine against attack from outsiders and viruses

 

. Command-line masterclass

 

. Advanced yum

 

. Kernel and module management and compilation

 

. Managing the file system

 

There is also an extensive reference in Part VII, “The Appendices,” which gives you an opportunity to explore in even more depth some of the topics covered in this book. It also gives you some history on Fedora and Linux, as well as an installation checklist.

 

Conventions Used in This Book

 

A lot of documentation is included with every Linux distribution, and Fedora is certainly no exception. Although the intent of Fedora 7 Unleashed is to be as complete as possible, it is impossible to cover every option of every command included in the distribution.

 

However, this book offers numerous tables of various options, commands, or keystrokes to help condense, organize, and present information about a variety of subjects.

 

This edition is also packed full of screenshots to illustrate nearly all Fedora-specific graphi- cal utilities—especially those related to system administration or the configuration and administration of various system and network services.

 

To help you better understand code listing examples and sample command lines, several formatting techniques are used to show input and ownership. For example, if the command or code listing example shows typed input, the input is formatted in boldface like this:......

..............................

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