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This research book has been written for a broad audience including students pursuing univer- Sity and training programmes, tourism industry professionals, planners and managers in the cruise industry, and finally government agency employees. As a general text, it should be useful to students in a range of disciplines including tourism, business development, geography, planning and regional studies. This book has more 400 pages by Ross K.Downling

cruise ship tourism


By: Ross K.Downling




This book is an addition to CABI’s excellent list of tourism books and it is the third that I have been involved in as editor, the first as sole editor. I have always been fascinated by the sea, perhaps a legacy of my early childhood spent collecting information about the cruise ships of the day (in the late 1950s and early 1960s), which I then kept and catalogued in scrap books. My interest was further enhanced in my teenage years when my father owned a gaff rigged schooner named Kotiti (Maori for wanderer). It was one of the larger yachts of its time on which we sailed and raced in the yachting A Class Division on Waitemata Harbour in Auckland, New Zealand. Kotiti also raced and cruised in the South Pacific, so my love of the sea, geography, harbours, ships and ports also expanded.


Years later when helping to establish a brand new university, the University of Notre Dame Australia, in the port city of Fremantle, Western Australia, I rekindled my love of cruise ships that I had previously engaged in, in childhood days. It began when Mr Noel Semmens, elder statesman of the tourism industry in Western Australia, invited me on board the Queen Elizabeth 2, when she was in port in February 1997. A chance meeting with one of Cunard’s senior vice- Presidents, led 2 years later to an assignment on the ship as a Special Interest Lecturer. My renewed interest was now pur- Sued in earnest, leading to further assignments as Special Interest Lecturer, Destination Lecturer and Group Tour Guide on a variety of cruise ships to a range of destinations as varied as South- East Asia, the South Pacific and Antarctica. The one thing I noted, however, is that there appeared to be little in the way of cruise industry research, and so combining my professional involvement as an indus- Try academic with my personal enthusiasm for cruise ships, I embarked on a voyage of discovery, if you will excuse the metaphor.


Earlier this decade the idea for this book was born after working on a state- Of- The- Art paper on cruising for the silver jubilee issues of Tourism Recreation Research (Dowling and Vasudavan, 2000). Three years later I approached a leading tourism academic and sought his nominations for possible contributors to a book on the subject. He gave me two names and suggested that there were not enough people researching the field to publish a book. But I like challenges, so in the latter part of 2003 when enjoying my first stint of Study Leave, at Murdoch University in Perth, I put forward a book proposal to CABI. My friend Rebecca Stubbs, the then Development Editor, was enthusiastic, as she always was, and the rest is history. Three years later this book is a reality.


The field of cruise tourism is a rapidly emerging one. It is enjoying huge growth and aware- Ness, especially since 11 September 2001, as travel consumers look for perceived safer alterna- Tives to their traditional holidays. At the same time the cost of cruises is now within reach of the baby boomers who have suddenly discovered the affordability of the larger liners with their family- Oriented cruises. So the cruise industry is undergoing a major boom, as evidenced by the plethora of promotional broadcasts emanating from the Cruise Lines Industry Association (CLIA), based in the USA.


There already exist a number of reports and books on the subject. These include an indus- Try overview (WTO, 2003) As well as books on cruise marketing (Dickinson and Vladimir, 1997), cruise issues (Klein, 2002), the cruise experience (Douglas and Douglas, 2004) And cruise cul- Ture (Berger, 2004). Of course the definitive industry and consumer guide is Berlitz: Ocean Cruising and Cruise Ships, now in its 16th year (Ward, 2006). Thus, much has already been writ- Ten about the subject, but the focus of this book is aimed at lifting the level of awareness of the subject generally, as well as its theory, issues, impacts, marketing and management considera- Tions. My belief is that the cruise industry can provide a number of benefits to governments, businesses, tourists and host communities. But this synergy will only be attained through increased knowledge, appropriate planning, sensitive development and active management. This is what this book is all about. The underpinning base of the approach to the subject is embedded firmly in my belief that cruise tourism is an exciting venture based on the twin goals of fostering client satisfaction alongside economic development. Of course the key question really is: Eco- Nomic development for whom? – the cruise companies or the multitude of stakeholders involved in this far- Reaching industry.


This research book has been written for a broad audience including students pursuing univer- Sity and training programmes, tourism industry professionals, planners and managers in the cruise industry, and finally government agency employees. As a general text, it should be useful to students in a range of disciplines including tourism, business development, geography, planning and regional studies. As a specific text, it provides an insightful overview of the industry covering a broad range of topics and issues. The book also has been written as a contribution to research and as such it brings together the essential elements of the cruise industry in addressing the provision of cruise ship tourism.


In this book, I have tried to present a ‘snapshot’ of what is happening in the world of cruise tourism at this time, in the early 21st century. It is not meant to provide a comprehensive overview as the subject is still in its infancy. The book has been enriched immeasurably by each of the con- Tributions of the chapter authors who are an eclectic group comprising new and emerging researchers, world- Renowned academics and industry professionals. The chapters represent a var- Ied approach to cruise ship tourism with a range of shades of meaning ascribed to the subject and differing levels of understanding about it. Some of the chapters are well detailed and illustrated, others are more elementary. All are included because they represent the views of people passionate about the subject from a number of countries around the world. Whereas some chapters are little more than descriptive case studies, others illustrate cruise tourism in practice. Issues such as eco- Nomic, social and environmental impacts are explored together with that of globalization. Case studies provide information on the phenomenal growth of the industry through real- World exam- Ples of markets, destinations and products. Through it all my hope is that further interest of this rapidly emerging subject has been generated, which will be the subject of considerably more analy- Sis in future years.


The book is organized in five parts. Part I introduces the industry and some of its underpinning aspects, including examination of cruising from geographical, industrial and cultural perspectives. It is completed by an investigation of policy issues, based on the case of Bermuda. Part II focuses on the insatiable demand for cruising, including examination of passengers’ perceptions of value, trends in the North American market, and passenger expectations and activities. Part III explores the supply side of cruising including cruise destinations and products with examples from around the world. Part IV explores the industry’s interactions with the economic, social and natural envi- Ronments. Part V, the final section, investigates a selection of a number of industry issues, before the book is brought to a close by a brief discussion of the future of the industry.


I request the reader to note that this book is neither a definitive text nor an encyclopedic overview of the subject. It has been compiled simply as an ‘entrée’ to the subject served with enthu- Siasm by the editor and contributors in order to communicate our love of the subject so that more will be done for it. We know that more detailed, scholarly research volumes will follow and this book is presented as a marker to stimulate further interest in, and research of, the subject.


I hope you enjoy it.


Ross K. Dowling - Western Australia - June 2006




Berger, A. A. (2004) Ocean Travel and Cruising: A Cultural Analysis. Haworth Press, New York.


Dickinson, B. And Vladimir, A. (1997) Selling the Sea: An Inside Look at the Cruise Industry. John Wiley & Sons, New York.


Douglas, N. And Douglas, N. (2004) The Cruise Experience: Regional and Global Issues in Cruise Tourism. Pearson Hospitality Press, Melbourne.


Dowling, R. K. And Vasudavan, T. (2000) Cruising in the new millennium. Tourism Recreation Research 25 (3), 17–27.


Klein, R. (2002) Cruise Ship Blues: The Underside of the Cruise Industry. New Society Publishers, Gabriola Island, British Columbia, Canada.


Ward, D. (2006) Berlitz: Ocean Cruising and Cruise Ships 2006. Berlitz Publishing, London.


WTO (World Tourism Organization) (2003) Worldwide Cruise Ship Activity. World Tourism Organization, Madrid. This page intentionally left blank




No book is written in isolation, in fact most require the efforts of a wide range of people including the support of family and friends, the contributions and encouragement of colleagues and of course the professional skills of those who are directly involved in its publication and subsequent promo- Tion. This book is no exception and I wish to thank a number of people for their personal and/ Or professional support throughout the process.


First, I would like to thank the contributors, all 49 of them. Some I have known for many years and have worked with before, others were unknown to me before this project. Some are emerging new or younger researchers, whereas others are iconic academics and world- Famous authors. All I have got to know better through the many iterations of the text during the evolution of the book and I salute each and every one of you for having the faith in this project and the fortitude to deal with my many demands over a long period of time. This book is yours and I know that it has been immea- Surably enriched by your contributions.


Sadly, one of the book’s contributors, Professor William F. Grazer, passed away on 10 August 2005 after a year- Long battle with lung cancer. Professor Grazer was a highly esteemed professor of Marketing at Towson University, Maryland, USA, who published widely in the fields of Advertising and Marketing Research. He taught for over 25 years and was honoured with numerous teaching awards from students and institutions. This book is much the richer for his contribution.


Four researchers made contributions to this book. In the early stages, Joan Chan, one of my Edith Cowan University students on an international scholarship from Malaysia, assisted me with the editing of chapters. Another ECU student, Jeremy Dyer from New Zealand, interested in security issues, researched the safety and security of the cruise industry. He subsequently graduated and is working with the Royal Australian Airforce in logistics. Alvin Lee, ECU Marketing Lecturer, spent hours trawling websites for data on cruising and he managed to unearth a huge amount of infor- Mation. Finally, Aldia Lai, an internationally recognized tourism industry event coordinator between assignments, worked on the research and editing in the final months of the book. I thank all of you for your contributions – it is much appreciated.


I also wish to acknowledge the enthusiasm and support of the publishers. CABI is an excellent company and I am very proud to be part of its stable of authors. Tim Hardwick as publisher is thanked for his acceptance of this project. The editors, formerly Rebecca Stubbs and now Claire Parfitt, are very dedicated and always inspirational to work with. Rebecca Stubbs, Development Editor, moved from professional adviser to close friend over the years I worked together with her. Rebecca, I thank you most sincerely for your professional advice, constant encouragement and continued belief in me. It was always uplifting and inspiring to work with you.


I also wish to thank Miss Jaya Bharathi, Project Manager, SPi, Pondicherry, India, for her contri- Bution to this book. As proof editor she worked with me very closely for more than a year on a daily basis. Always organized, efficient and a person of much initiative, she spent a huge amount of time checking the proofs and entering the necessary corrections. She carried this out in a very professional manner and dealt with the many problems in a patient and understanding manner. I appreciated this very much and commend her contribution to this work.


A number of colleagues at ECU have encouraged me throughout my career and I would like to thank them for their ongoing professional support. My mentor is Professor John Wood (Deputy Vice- Chancellor), who is quite simply one of the most insightful and dynamic persons I have ever had the privilege to work with. He speaks into my life and guides me in my thinking and actions. To him I am extremely grateful for taking such an interest in my life. Among others at ECU, I wish to particularly thank Professor Robert Harvey (Executive Dean, Faculty of Business and Law). Professor Kandy James (Head, School of Marketing, Tourism and Leisure), Thandarayan Vasudavan, Lynnaire Sheridan and Shani Wood (Lecturers in Tourism). In addition, Julie Connolly and Anna Johansson (Administration Officers, School of Marketing, Tourism and Leisure) Have also contributed to my work through their excellence as administrators and colleagues.


I also wish to thank my many Australian and international students from around the world, particularly Asia, Africa and Scandinavia, who have participated in my Cruise Ship Tourism classes. We have had a lot of fun and I have learned a lot about the industry from your research assignments and oral presentations.


One person in the cruise industry who has contributed to my enthusiasm for it is Pat Higgins, Manager of Enrichment Programs, Silversea Cruises, Fort Lauderdale, Miami, USA. I have worked with Pat since the days she was with Cunard, and over the many years since, I have built up enor- Mous respect for her knowledge of, and enthusiasm for, the cruise industry. She is a real powerhouse of knowledge and is the most professional person I know in the industry. Thanks, Pat, for working with me and having faith in me as lecturer on board Silversea Cruises. I believe that it is the best cruise line in the world today.


I also wish to thank a number of close academic colleagues from around the world who have in some small way contributed to my own thoughts on cruising through discussion, debate and dia- Logue over time. They are Clare Weeden and Jo- Anne Lester (England), Lydia Pulsipher and Arthur Asa Berger (USA), Ngaire and Norman Douglas (Australia), Ross Klein (Canada) And Thomas Bauer (China). I also wish to thank Helle Sorensen (Canada) For her enthusiasm for this book and the e- Mails of encouragement she sent. They always brightened my day and lifted my spirit. I look forward to continued collaboration of research with her in the future.


From Australia I wish to thank Steve Crawford (Tourism Western Australia) And Glenn Stephens (Fremantle Ports), both of whom are experts in Cruise Tourism and who promote the industry in our state. They are a continued source of knowledge about industry events. Thanks also to international cruise consultants Josephine Booth (Fiesta Holidays), Caroline Doeglas (Carnival Australia), Ann Hope (Classic International Cruises, Celebrity & RCL) And Peter French (Star Cruises and NCL) For sharing their knowledge both with me and my students. Your knowledge of, and enthu- Siasm for, the industry is outstanding. A thank you to John and Kerry Treacy, World Wide Cruising News: Pictoral, Brisbane, Australia, for your outstanding contribution to cruising and support of my work in this field. It is much appreciated. Also in Western Australia I thank my close friends Bret and Shellie Gaskin, Keith and Rhonda Amor, and Peter and Cathy Gleeson. You are always there to encourage and support me and my work and for this I am highly appreciative.


Finally I wish to thank my wife Wendy for her unfailing love and support through this my sev- Enth book in the last five years. I could not have achieved this without her. I also wish to thank my children and grandchildren for the contributions they have made, and continue to make, to my life. They are Tobias Dowling (Shanghai, China), Aurora Dowling and daughter Helena (Christchurch, New Zealand), Frank and Jurga Dowling (Vilnius, Lithuania), Jayne Belstead, husband Trevor, and daughters Shenee and Paige (London, England), Simon MacLennan and wife Lynette McGrath (Perth, Australia) And Mark Dowling (Albany, Australia). This book is part of my legacy for you all.


Part I



Part I introduces the cruise tourism industry and some of its underpinning aspects. It includes examination of cruising from geographical, industrial and cultural perspectives. This part is com- Pleted by an investigation of policy issues in Bermuda.


The traditional ‘King Neptune Ceremony’ held while crossing the equator on Silversea’s Silver Shadow, February 2006. Source: Ross K. Dowling.


This page intentionally left blank 1 The Cruising Industry Ross K. Dowling Edith Cowan University, Faculty of Business and Law, School of Marketing, Tourism and Leisure, Joondalup, WA 6027, Australia A cruise is defined as ‘to make a trip by sea in a liner for pleasure, usually calling at a number of ports’ (Collins English Dictionary). It is character- Ized by the ship being similar to a mobile resort, which transports passengers (guests) From place to place. Today ships are not viewed as a means of transport but as floating hotels. Increasingly they are being viewed as floating resorts. According to the World Tourism Organization (WTO) (2003) The accommodation and related resort facilities comprise 75% of the ship with the remainder devoted to its operations. These floating resorts mimic their land- Based counter- Parts with restaurants, bars, sports facilities, shopping centres, entertainment venues, com- Munication centres, etc. Cabins are becoming larger and more luxurious. The trend is for more cabins to have windows and/ Or balconies.


Cruise companies are increasingly promot- Ing and positioning their brand names to enable customers to identify the products as competi- Tion grows. Further, it enables customers to make fewer price comparisons and easier deci- Sion making. For instance, Carnival Cruises Lines associates the characteristics of ‘fun ships’ with its brand name, while the Queen Elizabeth 2 suggests a more exclusive image and unique experience with its promotional theme, ‘for once in your life, live’. Disney’s Cruises create a dis- Tinct brand appeal for children. As the cruise market grows, the need for branding will become even more notable.


The growth of cruise tourism is phenome- Nal. The revival of cruising has taken place in the last four decades, and today it forms a small but growing part in the global tourism industry. Cruise tourism is a niche form or type of tourism. In regard to its size within the industry, cruise ships account for only 0.6% of the hotel beds offered worldwide (WTO, 2003).


The cruise industry has evolved markedly since the early days of the first passenger ships. This evolution has included excursion voyages, transatlantic travel, the post- War boom, the demise of passenger ships, and the advent of modern cruising (Dickinson and Vladimir, 1997). The industry is now growing rapidly and is one of the major areas of tourism growth at the start of the new millennium. Davidoff and Davidoff (1994) Outlined five specific features of cruises that appeal to travellers:


1. Passengers have the opportunity to visit a variety of places in a short period of time with- Out the problems of other modes of travel.


2. The ships are self- Contained.


3. Cruise ships have a cruise director and staff whose sole function is to make sure passengers have an enjoyable time.


4. High- Quality food is served in elegant style.


5. Everyone usually begins and ends their vaca- Tion on the same day. © CAB International 2006. Cruise Ship Tourism (ed. Ross K. Dowling) 3


Industry Growth Key cruising areas are the Caribbean, Europe and Alaska. In North America the cruise industry is undergoing explosive growth according to the US- Based Cruise Line Industry Association (CLIA). The Association comprises 19 leading cruise lines with more than 150 ships and 16,500 travel agencies. Founded in 1975, its aim is to provide a forum where companies engaged in the market- Ing of passenger cruises in the USA and Canada can meet and discuss matters of common interest and develop and agree on policies aimed at pro- Moting the concept of cruise holidays.


In a series of press releases in the first half of 2005, the Association has illustrated the phe- Nomenal growth of the industry. On 3 January 2005, it said that cruise vacations had reached a level of popularity that few observers believed was possible 30 years before, when the Association was founded. Research they had commissioned in 2004 showed that 30 million Americans had expressed an intent to cruise during the next 3 years (CLIA, 2005a).


On 19 January 2005 under the heading ‘Industry predicts cruising will be the vacation of choice in 2005’, it stated that during the last 15 years cruise ship passengers have increased by an average of 8% each year, and in recent years as much as 15%. They also indicated that the industry is worth US$23 billion a year (CLIA, 2005b). On 16 March 2005 under the heading ‘Cruise Lines ride the wave of unprecedented growth’, the Association indicated that its mem- Ber lines had carried 10.5 million passengers in 2004, an 11% increase on the previous year (CLIA, 2005c). They add that this remarkable growth has been fuelled by the fact that their member lines’ ships have sailed at 104% occu- Pancy rate despite 62 new ships having been launched since 2000. In a further release in May 2005 entitled ‘A future bright with promise’, they noted that another 20 new ships would be added to their fleets by 2008 (CLIA, 2005d).


This rapid growth is illustrated by the large number of cruise ships, cruise lines and the advent of cruise corporations. Today the three major ones are Carnival, Royal Caribbean International and Star Cruise Corporation. The year 2004 saw the launch of the then world’s largest cruise liner, Queen Mary 2 (QM2), cost- Ing US$800 million and carrying around 3100 passengers and over 1000 crew (Fig. 1.1). The seriousness with which governments are taking this sector of the tourism industry is also shown by the increasing number of industry organiza- Tions as well as the number of national and regional cruise strategies.






About the Editor xi


Contributors xiii


Preface xvii


Acknowledgements xxi


PART I: INTRODUCTION 1 The Cruising Industry 3


Ross K. Dowling 2 A Geographical Overview of the World Cruise Market and its Seasonal Complementarities 18

Jacques J. Charlier and Robert J. McCalla 3 The Cruise Industry: An Industrial Organization Perspective 31

Andreas Papatheodorou 4 Cruise Tourism and Organizational Culture: The Case for Occupational Communities 41

Darren Lee- Ross 5 Cruise Sector Policy in a Tourism- Dependent Island Destination:

The Case of Bermuda 51

Victor B. Teye


PART II: DEMAND: CRUISE PASSENGERS AND MARKETING 6 What Drives Cruise Passengers’ Perceptions of Value? 63


James F. Petrick and Xiang Li 7 Cruising and the North American Market 74

Allan R. Miller and William F. Grazer 8 When One Size Doesn’t Fit All 86

Chris Fanning and Jane James 9 Ways of Seeing the Caribbean Cruise Product: A British Perspective 95

Clare Weeden and Jo- Anne Lester

10 The Impact of Interpretation on Passengers of Expedition Cruises 105

Kaye Walker and Gianna Moscardo

11 Cruise Guide Star- Rating Systems: A Need for Standardization 115

Reg A. Swain

vii viii Contents

12 Sixteen Ways of Looking at an Ocean Cruise: A Cultural Studies Approach 124

Arthur A. Berger




13 Spatial and Evolutionary Characteristics of Baltic Sea Cruising:

A Historic- Geographical Overview 131

Jan O. Lundgren

14 The Alaska Cruise Industry 145

John M. Munro and Warren G. Gill

15 The Cruise Industry and Atlantic Canada: A Case Study 160

Nancy Chesworth

16 The Changing Geography of Cruise Tourism in the Caribbean 170

Paul F. Wilkinson

17 Paradise and other Ports of Call: Cruising in the Pacific Islands 184

Ngaire Douglas and Norman Douglas

18 The Antarctic Cruise Industry 195

Thomas Bauer and Ross K. Dowling

19 Round- The- World Cruising: A Geography Created by Geography? 206

Robert J. McCalla and Jacques J. Charlier

20 The Norwegian Coastal Express: Moving Towards Cruise Tourism? 223

Ola Sletvold

21 The Structure and Operation of Coastal Cruising: Australian Case Studies 232

Sacha Reid and Bruce Prideaux

22 Adventure Cruising: An Ethnography of Small Ship Travel 240

Valene L. Smith

23 Off the Beaten Track: A Case Study of Expedition Cruise Ships in

South- West Tasmania, Australia 251

Claire Ellis and Lorne K. Kriwoken




24 Turning Water into Money: The Economics of the Cruise Industry 261

Ross A. Klein

25 Cruising North to Alaska: The New ‘Gold Rush’ 270

Greg Ringer

26 The Sources and Magnitude of the Economic Impact on a Local Economy from Cruise Activities: Evidence from Port Canaveral, Florida 280

Bradley M. Braun and Fred Tramell

27 Florida’s Day Cruise Industry: A Significant Contributor to Florida’s Economy? 290

Lori Pennington- Gray

28 Cruise Tourism in the Eastern Caribbean: An Anachronism in the Post- Colonial Era? 299

Lydia M. Pulsipher and Lindsey C. Holderfield

29 Fantasy and Reality: Tourist and Local Experiences of Cruise Ship Tourism in Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico 315

Lynnaire Sheridan and Gregory Teal

30 A Shifting Tide: Environmental Challenges and Cruise Industry Responses 327

James E. N. Sweeting and Scott L. Wayne

31 Environmental Policy Challenges for the Cruise Industry: Case Studies from Australia and the USA 338

Suzanne Dobson and Alison Gill

Contents ix

32 Cozumel: The Challenges of Cruise Tourism 350

Helle Sorensen




33 Cruise Ships in the UK and North European Market: Development

Opportunity or Illusion for UK Ports? 363

Derek Robbins

34 Troubled Seas: Social Activism and the Cruise Industry 377

Ross A. Klein

35 The Disneyization of Cruise Travel 389

Adam Weaver

36 Cruise Tourism: A Paradigmatic Case of Globalization? 397

Robert E. Wood

37 Cruises, Supranationalism and Border Complexities 407

Dallen J. Timothy

38 Looking Ahead: The Future of Cruising 414

Ross K. Dowling


Index 435



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